Crystals may lower cost of Cloud Computing


A team of organic chemists discovered they could create very long crystals with desirable properties using just two small organic molecules that are extremely attracted to each other.
The attraction between the two molecules causes them to self assemble into an ordered network—order that is needed for a material to be ferroelectric.
Straight from the Source


The starting compounds are simple and inexpensive, making the lightweight materials scalable and very promising for technology applications. In contrast, conventional ferroelectric materials—special varieties of polymers and ceramics—are complex and expensive to produce. The new materials can be made quickly and are very versatile.
In addition to computer memory, the discovery of the Northwestern materials could potentially improve sensing devices, solar energy systems, and nanoelectronics. The study is published August 23 in Nature.
“This work will serve as a guide for designing these materials and using ferroelectricity in new ways,” says Samuel I. Stupp, professor of chemistry, materials science and engineering, and medicine. He is a senior author of the paper.
“Our molecular design enables us to invent a nearly infinite library of ferroelectric materials.”
Ferroelectric materials exhibit spontaneous electric polarization—making one side of the material positive and the opposite side negative—that can be reversed by the application of an electric field (from a battery, for example). These two possible orientations make the materials attractive to researchers developing computer memory because one orientation could correspond to a 1 and the other to a 0.
“The material’s behavior is complex, but the superstructure is simple,” says Sir Fraser Stoddart, professor of chemistry in the Weinberg College of Arts and Sciences at Northwestern and a senior author of the paper. “It is the superstructure that gives the material its desirable properties.”
The two first authors of the paper are Alok Tayi, a former graduate student in Stupp’s lab and now a postdoctoral fellow at Harvard University, and Alexander Shveyd, a former graduate student in Stoddart’s lab and now a postdoctoral fellow at the University of Rochester.


Cloud costs

These new supramolecular materials derive their properties from the specific interaction, repeated over and over again between two small alternating organic molecules, not from the molecules themselves. The two complementary molecules interact electronically and so strongly that they come close together and form very long crystals. This highly ordered 3D network is based on hydrogen bonds.
In particular, the materials could help address the very expensive upkeep of cloud computing. Facebook, Google, Web-based email, and other services are stored in the cloud and rely on volatile memory. When the power is turned off, volatile memory forgets the information it’s holding. So the power has to be kept on.
The new ferroelectric materials could be developed into non-volatile memory. With this type of memory, if the power is turned off, the information is retained. If the cloud and electronic devices operated on non-volatile memory, $6 billion in electricity costs would be saved in the US annually, the researchers say.
Current non-volatile computer memories are not based on ferroelectrics. But ferroelectric memories promise to consume less power, last longer, and capture data faster than conventional non-volatile memories.
Key in a lock
As so often happens in science, serendipity played a role in this discovery of super long crystals. Shveyd was trying to make boxlike molecular rings, but this outcome was never observed. Instead, he stumbled upon the interesting crystals.
“This discovery effectively opened up a Pandora’s box,” Stoddart says. “Alex started working with Alok in Stupp’s group, and the two of them took advantage of the interactions between the two building blocks. They optimized the design so they could grow very long crystals with ferroelectric properties.”
“The interaction between the molecules is very strong—almost like a key in a lock,” Shveyd says. “They fit very well together. This interaction produces ferroelectricity, which, to our great surprise, happened at room temperature.”
This type of interaction between two molecules previously had been found to give rise to ferroelectricity in three other materials but only below liquid nitrogen temperatures. The new materials developed at Northwestern include additional interactions that enable this property to occur for the first time at room temperature and above.
The new material is all about electron exchange between two small molecules. One molecule is the donor of electrons (red), and the other is the acceptor of electrons (blue). The red and blue molecules are arranged in a mixed stack, and one type alternates with the other.
Within that network, each molecule partners with a neighbor and exchanges electrons. Then an electric field is applied, prompting the molecules to switch partners, like dancers on a dance floor. This switch of partners produces ferroelectricity.
The research team developed a library of 10 complexes with this architecture. Three are reported in the Nature paper. The crystals are based on complexes between a pyromellitic diimide-acceptor and donors that are derivatives of naphthalene, pyrene, and tetrathiafulvalene.
“The simplicity of our system demonstrates how self-assembly can endow materials with novel functions,” Tayi says. “We hope our work motivates chemists and engineers to explore ferroelectricity in organic materials.”



As per more then 350 search Engines including AltaVista, Bing, Google and Yahoo
Expert Team Of Aerosoft is Best Aviation SEO KPO Team in Asia
 
Best Aviation Managers in Asia:

Best HR Manager in Asia :
Er Reema Chordiya [ BE (CS) MBA (HR)] 
reemac@aerosoftorg.in

Best HR Manager Manager Operations in Asia :
Er Anubha Barod [ B.E. MBA [ E Comm]
anubha.barod@aerosoftseo.com

Best Manager Marketing in Asia  :
Ankita Mishra [ B Sc (CS) MBA (Mktg)]
AnkitaM@aerosoftorg.in

Best Aviation Software Engineer Cum Aviation Blogger in Asia:
Ruchika Mandore [ BCA ]







Cloud adviser: Contract for functionality, not a brand
Computerworld Australia
Before buying a cloud computing service, you evaluate it, test it, see it in action, so you know what it's supposed to accomplish for you, right? Well, a description of that functionality belongs in the contract. You'd be amazed at how many contracts ...
See all stories on this topic »
Is cloud computing hot air? Comprehend Systems shoots the breeze with OSP.
OutSourcing-Pharma.com
What does cloud computing mean to the pharmaceutical and biotech industry? Broadly, cloud computing means setting all the processing and power externally so that your data is stored virtually. The big advantages include being able to scale the system ...
See all stories on this topic »

OutSourcing-Pharma.com
Piston Jumps on 'Freemium' Cloud Bandwagon
Computerworld India
Piston Cloud Computing -- which bills itself as the OpenStack enterprise company -- is the latest cloud vendor to offer a free or low-cost version of its software for customer trials and proofs of concepts. Piston Cloud Computing -- which bills itself ...
See all stories on this topic »
HP earnings: 6 lowlights
GigaOM
It's slow going for the HP turnaround Meg Whitman is trying to engineer. There's softness in the PC business, in printers, in servers — just more bad news atop the $8 billion write-down of enterprise services that HP pre-announced. Not a pretty picture.
See all stories on this topic »

GigaOM
Ramco Systems enters Australia to drive business
Moneycontrol.com
Thu, Aug 23, 2012 at 16:05. Ramco Systems enters Australia to drive business. Software firm Ramco Systems, focused on cloud computing platform, today said it has set up a wholly-owned subsidiary in Australia to drive growth in new markets. Source: PTI ...
See all stories on this topic »
How cloud computing is impacting enterprise Java developers
TheServerSide.com
Will there will be no end to the media hype surrounding cloud computing? Every day a new press release touts the remarkable service provided by some previously unknown PaaS provider, or an article or research study comes out that trumpets the ...
See all stories on this topic »
'The Cloud' Poses Tax Questions For Mass.
WBUR
BOSTON — As consumers and businesses turn to computing in “the cloud” to store data or crunch numbers, cloud-based companies — and states — are beginning to wonder: Can you tax that? Massachusetts officials are starting to provide some answers.
See all stories on this topic »
Rackspace investment to boost NSW jobs
The Australian
The cloud computing firm is poised to end the year with around 25 staff, Mr Randall said. It offers web hosting services to the likes of Pacific Brands, Kogan, Lonely Planet, Treasury Wine Estates, Webjet, and News Limited, publisher of The Australian.
See all stories on this topic »
Crystals may lower cost of cloud computing
Futurity: Research News
In particular, the materials could help address the very expensive upkeep of cloud computing. Facebook, Google, Web-based email, and other services are stored in the cloud and rely on volatile memory. When the power is turned off, volatile memory ...
See all stories on this topic »
Q&A: Adrian Gardner, CIO, NASA Goddard Flight Center
SmartPlanet.com (blog)
That's why the space agency has been aggressively adopting the cloud model – both from within its own data centers and with outside partners – to increase its computing power. NASA provided the genesis for the open-source cloud platform, OpenStack, ...
See all stories on this topic »


Comments

Popular posts from this blog

Airplane Parts and Functions

I Gave Birth To My Desire.